The gold-standard ELISA for protein biomarkers, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, is highly sensitive but difficult to scale up. Its complex and lengthy fluid manipulation procedures require large volumes of reagents, making it impossible to test a large number of samples simultaneously. Using a new microfluidic technique that combines a channel plate and 96-well plate, highly scalable multiplexed ELISA is now possible.
Microfluidic technologies have made their mark in diagnostics. These technologies are ideally suited for ELISA automation, reducing sample requirements and enhancing the kinetics of the assay. Microfluidic systems offer a large surface area to volume ratio, improving kinetics and enabling a fast assay procedure. The small size of microfluidic devices makes them convenient for portable applications.
The current chip design uses three internal calibration points for each test, compared with eight calibration concentrations in traditional ELISAs. The calibration curve is not linear over the entire assay range and often employs 4-PL or 5-PL curve fitting. Microfluidic ELISA technology is more affordable than conventional ELISA methods, which can run tests at a cost of $10 per sample. But the benefits of these devices are not just economic. And don't forget to get an ELISA washer, which is used to clean the ELISA plates so as to reduce errors.
The microfluidic ELISA technology was developed by researchers at the University of Michigan. Its development has been published, with results showing that the system can detect COVID-19 antibodies, which are commonly found in human blood. The team plans to validate the device in a human blood sample using this method. But for now, it is still only a prototype. It's important to note that the research team is still working on the device and is actively testing it to determine its sensitivity.
Another important benefit of this technology is its flexibility. Its unique condensed microfluidic channel allows for a wider reaction field while maintaining the same S/V ratio as traditional ELISA. The new microfluidic chip is capable of measuring multiple biomarkers with high sensitivity and specificity. The ELISA chip can be used for a variety of applications. A microfluidic ELISA can be performed in multiple tubes and is highly flexible and inexpensive.
Microfluidics is a complex process with many unique challenges. Because of the limited space and volume in microfluidic systems, the technology has a scaling law. Whenever you reduce the volume of a microfluidic system by one dimension, the liquid that it can hold will decrease by a factor of three. So if a system has a one-mm edge length, it will need a 10 mm 3 channel, which is equivalent to just one nl of liquid. In the end, microfluidic systems are extremely versatile and useful in research and development.
Microfluidic ELISA uses an array of a-Si-H photosensors to detect the presence or absence of a given antibody. The chemiluminescent signal is produced when the GPs bind to an antibody. The array is made up of thirty a-Si-H photosensors that are deposited onto a glass substrate. After being coated with a-Si-H antibodies, the assay is performed.
Microfluidic immunoassays have many impressive properties. They require less reagents, sample, and reagents, and are more economical and portable. The most common challenges associated with this technology are related to cost, performance, and integration. The microfluidic device needs to be compact and low-cost to compete with traditional laboratory tests. Its societal impact is huge, and its use is increasing every day.
Microfluidic immunoassays are used for diagnostics, environmental monitoring, food, and drug screening. The platform is capable of being used for a wide range of applications, including in-vivo tests. Microfluidic chips are based on the principles of capillary driven microfluidics, optofluidics, magnetic, and digital microfluidics. Although these technologies are still in their early stages, they offer the potential to revolutionize the industry.